Argument synthesis

Types of Argument Essays


argument synthesis

M: Analysis, Argument, and Synthesis (ap honors

Because of inherent ambiguities (such as the "1/2" example above) and because of the wide range of possible constructs in any language, this process may introduce errors in the speech output and may cause different processors to render the same document differently. Text-to-phoneme conversion: Once the synthesis processor has determined the set of tokens to be spoken, it must derive pronunciations for each token. Pronunciations may be conveniently described as sequences of phonemes, which are units of sound in a language that serve to distinguish one word from another. Each language (and sometimes each national or dialect variant of a language) has a specific phoneme set:. G., most us english dialects have around 45 phonemes, hawai'ian has between 12 and 18 (depending on who you ask and some languages have more than 100! This conversion is made complex by a number of issues.

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Tokens in ssml cannot span markup tags except within the token and w elements. A simple English example is "cup break/ board outside the token and w elements, the synthesis processor will treat this as the two tokens "cup" and "board" rather than as one token (word) with a pause in the middle. Breaking one token into multiple tokens this way will likely affect how the processor treats. Markup support: The say-as element can be used in the input document to explicitly indicate the presence and type of these constructs and to resolve ambiguities. The set of constructs that can be marked has not yet been essay defined but might include dates, times, numbers, acronyms, currency amounts and more. Note that many acronyms and abbreviations can be handled by the author via direct text replacement or by use of the sub element,. "BBC" can be written as " and "AAA" can be written as "triple A". These replacement written forms will likely be pronounced as one would want the original acronyms to be pronounced. In the case of Japanese text, if you have a synthesis processor that supports both Kanji and kana, you may be able to use the sub element to identify whether should be spoken as kyou wa" "today or konnichiwa" "hello. Non-markup behavior: For text content that is not marked with the say-as element the synthesis processor is expected to make a reasonable effort to automatically locate and convert these constructs to a speakable form.

Text normalization: All written languages have special constructs that require a conversion of the written form (orthographic form) into the spoken form. Text normalization is an automated process of the synthesis processor that performs this conversion. For example, for English, when "200" appears in a document it may be spoken as "two hundred dollars". Similarly, "1/2" may be spoken as "half "January second "February first "one of two" and. By the end of this step the text to be spoken has been converted completely into tokens. The exact details of what constitutes a token are language-specific. In English, tokens are usually separated by white space and are typically words. For languages with different tokenization behavior, the term "word" in this specification is intended to mean an appropriately comparable unit.

argument synthesis

How to Write a synthesis Essay : 15 Steps (with Pictures

The processor has the ultimate authority to ensure that what it produces is pronounceable (and ideally intelligible). In general the markup provides writing a way for the author to make prosodic and other information available to the processor, typically information the processor would be unable to acquire on its own. It is then up to the processor to determine whether and in what way to use the information. Xml parse: An xml parser is used to extract the document tree and content from the incoming text document. The structure, tags and attributes obtained in this step influence each of the following steps. Structure analysis: The structure of a document influences the way in which a document should be read. For example, there are common speaking patterns associated with paragraphs and sentences. Markup support: The p and s elements defined in ssml explicitly indicate document structures that affect the speech output. Non-markup behavior: In documents and parts of documents where these elements are not used, the synthesis processor is responsible for inferring the structure by automated analysis of the text, often using punctuation and other language-specific data.

Implementable: The specification should be implementable with existing, generally available technology, and the number of optional features should be minimal. 1.2 Speech Synthesis Process Steps a text-to-speech system (a synthesis processor ) that supports ssml will be responsible for rendering a document as spoken output and for using the information contained in the markup to render the document as intended by the author. Document creation: A text document provided as input to the synthesis processor may be produced automatically, by human authoring, or through a combination of these forms. Ssml defines the form of the document. Document processing: The following are the six major processing steps undertaken by a synthesis processor to convert marked-up text input into automatically generated voice output. The markup language is designed to be sufficiently rich so as to allow control over each of the steps described below so that the document author (human or machine) can control the final voice output. Although each step below is divided into "markup support" and "non-markup behavior actual behavior is usually a mix of the two and varies depending on the tag.

Thesis, antithesis, synthesis, wikipedia

argument synthesis

50 Compelling Argumentative, essay topics - thoughtCo

Different markup elements impact different stages of the synthesis process (see section.2 ). The markup may be produced either automatically, for instance via xslt or css3 from an xhtml document, or by human authoring. Markup may be present within a complete ssml document (see section.2.2 ) or as part of a fragment (see section.2.1 ) embedded in event another language, although no interactions with other languages are specified as part of ssml itself. Most of the markup included in ssml is suitable for use by the majority of content developers; however, some advanced features like phoneme and prosody (e.g. For speech contour design) may require specialized knowledge. 1.1 Design Concepts The design and standardization process has followed from the Speech Synthesis Markup Requirements for voice markup Languages reqs. The following items were the key design criteria.

Consistency: provide predictable control of voice output across platforms and across speech synthesis implementations. Interoperability: support use along with other W3C specifications including (but not limited to) voicexml, aural Cascading Style Sheets and smil. Generality: support speech output for a wide range of applications with varied speech content. Internationalization: Enable speech output in a large number of languages within or across documents. Generation and readability: Support automatic generation and hand authoring of documents. The documents should be human-readable.

The appendices in this document are informative unless otherwise indicated explicitly. Table of Contents. Introduction This W3C specification is known as the Speech Synthesis Markup Language specification (ssml) and is based upon the jsgf and/or jsml specifications, which are owned by sun Microsystems, Inc., california,. The jsml specification can be found at jsml. Ssml is part of a larger set of markup specifications for voice browsers developed through the open processes of the W3C.


It is designed to provide a rich, xml-based markup language for assisting the generation of synthetic speech in Web and other applications. The essential role of the markup language is to give authors of synthesizable content a standard way to control aspects of speech output such as pronunciation, volume, pitch, rate, etc. A related initiative to establish a standard system for marking up text input is sable sable, which tried to integrate many different xml-based markups for speech synthesis into a new one. The activity carried out in sable was also used as the main starting point for defining the Speech Synthesis Markup Requirements for voice markup Languages reqs. Since then, sable itself has not undergone any further development. The intended use of ssml is to improve the quality of synthesized content.

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Changes from ssml.0 are motivated by these requirements. This document has been reviewed by W3c members, by software developers, and task by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by the director as a w3c recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited from another document. W3C's role in making the recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability of the web. This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3c patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3c patent Policy. The sections in the main body of this document are normative unless otherwise specified.

argument synthesis

The working Group made a few editorial changes to the 23 February 2010 Proposed Recommendation in response to comments. Changes from the Proposed Recommendation can be found in Appendix. Also changes from ssml.0 including a note on backwards compatibility to ssml.0 can be found in Appendix. This document enhances ssml.0 ssml to provide better support for a broader set english of natural (human) languages. To determine in what ways, if any, ssml is limited by its design with respect to supporting languages that are in large commercial or emerging markets for speech synthesis technologies but for which there was limited or no participation by either native speakers or experts. The first workshop ws, in beijing, prc, in October 2005, focused primarily on Chinese, korean, and Japanese languages, and the second ws2, in Crete, greece, in may 2006, focused primarily on Arabic, Indian, and Eastern European languages. The third workshop ws3, in Hyderabad, India, in January 2007, focused heavily on Indian and Middle eastern languages. Information collected during these workshops was used to develop a requirements document reqs11.

technical reports index at http www. This is the recommendation of "Speech Synthesis Markup Language (ssml) Version.1". It has been produced by the voice Browser Working Group, which is part of the voice Browser Activity. Comments are welcome on ( archive ). See w3C mailing list and archive usage guidelines. The design of ssml.1 has been widely reviewed (see the disposition of comments ) and satisfies the working Group's technical requirements. A list of implementations is included in the ssml.1 Implementation Report, along with the associated test suite.

Paul Bagshaw, France telecom, michael Bodell, microsoft (de zhi huang France telecom (lou xiaoyan toshiba, scott McGlashan, hp (Jianhua tao chinese Academy of Sciences (Yan Jun iflytek (hu fang) (until while an Invited Expert) (Yongguo kang) (until 5 December 2007 while at Panasonic Corporation) (Helen. Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections. Copyright 2010, w3c mit, ercim, keio all Rights Reserved. W3C liability, trademark and document use rules beauty apply. The voice Browser Working Group has sought to develop standards to enable access to the web using spoken interaction. The Speech Synthesis Markup Language Specification is one of these standards and is designed to provide a rich, xml-based markup language for assisting the generation of synthetic speech in Web and other applications. The essential role of the markup language is to provide authors of synthesizable content a standard way to control aspects of speech such as pronunciation, volume, pitch, rate, etc. Across different synthesis-capable platforms.

Strategies for Synthesis Writing - findingDulcinea)

Why should you choose us? Quality Assurance, all registered experts have solid experience in academic writing and have successfully passed our special competency examinations. Zero Plagiarism guarantee, we only provide unique papers written entirely by the writer himself. You are 100 protected against plagiarism. Low Price, studybay offers the lowest prices on the market. Our prices start at just 5 time per page! Speech Synthesis Markup Language (ssml) Version.1. This version: latest version: previous version: editors: Daniel. Burnett, voxeo (formerly of Vocalocity and nuance) (Zhi wei shuang ibm, authors: paolo baggia, loquendo.


Argument synthesis
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  3. This W3C specification is known as the Speech Synthesis Markup Language specification (ssml) and is based upon the jsgf and/or jsml specifications, which are owned by sun Microsystems, Inc., california,. The jsml specification can be found at jsml. A text-to-speech system (a synthesis.

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